Financial ratios are important when analysing firm’s financial statements as they provide valuable insight into how a firm is operating. Financial ratios can be separated into five different categories , activity ratios, growth ratios, liquidity ratios, profitability ratios and solvency ratios.
Activity ratios measure how quickly a firm converts non-cash assets into cash. Growth ratios measure investor’s response in owning shares in a particular firm. Liquidity ratios measure the availability of cash that a firm has in order to meet their short term debt obligations. Profitability ratios measure how a firm uses their assets and controls their expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return. Solvency ratios measure the firm's ability to repay long-term debt.
The ratios presented in the tutorials below may differ from other textbooks and websites. The issue is that different analysts use different measures in calculating similar ratios. It is important to keep in mind that there is no one “correct” way to calculate accounting ratios